Observatory of Euro-Mediterranean Regional Integration

The geographical scope of EU enlargement created new challenges for EU neighbors due to market repositioning. But the EU neighborhood is also literally the EU's backyard through ethnic and linguistic kinships and the close ties based on geography and history. As Romano Prodi stated: "I want to see a ring of friends surrounding the Union and its closest European neighbors, from Morocco to Russia and the Black Sea" (Prodi 2002). Mr. Verheugen confirmed in 2004 that "European integration is not about milk quotas and customs duties. Instead it is about peace, stability and prosperity for our citizens" extended from within the EU to its neighbors based on "joint ownership" of the process.

The European Neighborhood Policy's (ENP) aim is to work together with states that share a land or sea border with the EU, to increase the prosperity, stability and security of the EU's neighbors in Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and the South shore of the Mediterranean. Neighbors, who want to carry out reforms to improve their standards of democracy and human rights to increase their access to the EU's single market, to improve the environment and/or to step up their co-operation with the EU on issues like climate change, energy, transport or migration, have the possibility to work on a joint Action Plan with the EU, and can look forward to substantial assistance in the form of technical help, political support, and financial aid. To read entire article, click here 


European Commission Neighborhood Policy (excerpts from official website)


Catherine Ashton
High Representative of the Union
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy,
Vice-President of the European Commission

Stefan Fule
Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) since its launch in 2004 has transformed relations between the EU and its neighbours:

political contacts have increased in profile and intensity;

trade has increased at double digit rates, aided by a steady process of liberalisation and regulatory convergence,

mobility with certain ENP partners has been strengthened;

EU assistance has increased by 32 % in the Financial Framework 2007-2013.

The Lisbon Treaty commits the EU to the “development of a special relationship with neighbouring countries aiming to establish an area of prosperity and good neighbourliness, founded on the values of the Union and characterised by close and peaceful relations based on cooperation”. For that purpose “the EU may conclude specific agreements with the countries concerned” (art. 8 TEU).

The European Neighbourhood Policy is all about working together with states that share a land or sea border with the EU, to increase the prosperity, stability and security of the EU’s neighbours in Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and the South shore of the Mediterranean.

Neighbours who want to carry out reforms to improve their standards of democracy and human rights, to increase their access to the EU's single market, to improve the environment or to step up their co-operation with the EU on issues like climate change, energy, transport or migration, have the possibility to work on a joint Action Plan with the EU, and can look forward to substantial assistance: technical help, political support, and financial aid.

The ENP is a jointly owned initiative and its implementation requires action on both sides, by the neighbours and by the EU. Although much was achieved so far much also remains to be done if the ENP’s goals are to be achieved. The ENP will benefit from greater coherence thanks to the creation of the European External Action Service which will support the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission Baroness Catherine Ashton and the appointment of a Commissioner specifically dealing with the Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy, Štefan Füle.


The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was developed in 2004, with the objective of avoiding the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and our neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all.

This ENP framework is proposed to the 16 of EU's closest neighbours – Algeria, Armenia, AzerbaijanBelarusEgyptGeorgiaIsraelJordanLebanonLibya,MoldovaMoroccoOccupied Palestinian TerritorySyriaTunisia and Ukraine.

The policy was first outlined in a Commission Communication on Wider Europe [197 KB] in March 2003, followed by a Strategy Paper on the European Neighbourhood Policy [289 KB] in May 2004. The strategy sets out in concrete terms how the EU proposes to work more closely with these countries. As part of its report on implementation of the ENP, in December 2006 and again in December 2007, the Commission also made proposals as to how the policy could be further strengthened.

The ENP, which is chiefly a bilateral policy between the EU and each partner country, is further enriched with regional and multilateral co-operation initiatives:the Eastern Partnership (launched in Prague in May 2009), the Union for the Mediterranean (the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, formerly known as the Barcelona Process, re-launched in Paris in July 2008), and the Black Sea Synergy(launched in Kiev in February 2008).

Within the ENP the EU offers our neighbours a privileged relationship, building upon a mutual commitment to common values (democracy and human rights, rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable development). The ENP goes beyond existing relationships to offer political association and deeper economic integration, increased mobility and more people-to-people contacts. The level of ambition of the relationship depends on the extent to which these values are shared.

The ENP remains distinct from the process of enlargement although it does not prejudge, for European neighbours, how their relationship with the EU may develop in future, in accordance with Treaty provisions.

Central to the ENP are the bilateral Action Plans between the EU and each ENP partner (12 of them were agreed). These set out an agenda of political and economic reforms with short and medium-term priorities of 3 to 5 years. Following the expiration of the first Action Plans succession documents are being adopted. The ENP is not yet fully ‘activated’ for Algeria, Belarus, Libya and Syria since those have not agreed Action Plans.

The ENP builds upon existing agreements between the EU and the partner in question: Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCA) or Association Agreements (AA). Implementation of the ENP is jointly promoted and monitored through the Committees and sub-Committees established in the frame of these agreements. The European Commission under its own responsibility publishes each year the ENP Progress Reports.

ENPI www.enpi-info.eu



The main focus of ENPI funding is on bilateral country programmes, supporting partners’ implementation of their own political, governance, economic and social reform programmes. Of the €5.6 billion available for 2007-2010, 73% is geared to support partners’ implementation of their European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), and for Russia, co-financing of the implementation of the Common Spaces Road Maps. For this reason, countries which have concluded an Action Plan and made progress in its implementation receive substantial funding.

Details of bilateral projects managed by the EU Delegations in the partner countries can be found by clicking on the links below.




Apart from projects funded under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument’s (ENPI) regional programme, other EU Directorates Generals also support projects in the ENPI regions.

More information about some of these projects can be found on their websites, which we list below:




IncoNet EECA (The partnership between the countries of the European Union and Eastern Europe/Central Asia)



Civil society and local authorities

ENPI thematic programmes:http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/infopoint/publications/europeaid/135a_en.htm

Euromed NGO Platform


NARPIMED Project (Civil Protection)



Horizon 2020


IN2WOOD network project



FREEME project (Promoting renewable energies and energy efficiency in Morocco and Egypt)

Meditate – Integrated water management (Sixth Framework programme)



EpiSouth Project



MIRA (Mediterranean Innovation and Science & Research Coordination Action)


Coordination of the Agriculture Research in the Mediterranean Area (ARIM-NET)


Climate Change impacts on water and security (CLIWASEC)http://www.cliwasec.eu/home/home.php

Shared Environment Information System (SEIS/ENPI)



SALTO Youth Resource Centre South


SALTO Youth Resource Centre Eastern Europe and Caucuses




 Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, (CEPS)/MedPro

MEDPRO – Mediterranean Prospects is a consortium of 17 highly reputed institutions from throughout the Mediterranean funded under the EU’s 7th Framework Program and coordinated by the Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels.

The aim of MEDPRO is to contribute to the reform process in the political, economic and social agendas by broadening the level of knowledge on the interplay between the diverse set of challenges and providing deep insights into the prospected policy options and their outcomes.



 EU4Seas: the European Union and sub-regional multilateralism in the European sea basins (M.Comelli, N.Mikhelidze)


This research project analyses the effects of European strategies and policies in the four "European" sea basins: the Mediterranean, the Baltic, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. This three-year project, begun in January 2009, brings together eight institutes and is coordinated by the Fundació Centre Internacional de Documentació of Barcelona (CIDOB). The aim is to determine whether European policies (enlargement, neighbourhood, partnership, etc.) are consistent with the objective of promoting multilateralism at a regional and sub-regional levels. The project intends to draw up policy recommendations to improve the synergy between the European Union and the regional and sub-regional integration initiatives in these areas. A workshop on the political and security aspects of sub-regional cooperation in the European sea basins was held in Rome in April 2009. IAI conducted field research on sub-regional co-operation in the southern Mediterranean, travelling to Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon and Libya. IAI is the leader of Work Package 2 (Politics and Security), and Michele Comelli is a member of the project's Steering Committee.

Recent relevant publications: 
Dossiers CIDOB - Popular uprisings in the Arab World

 European University Institute Mediterranean Series


The Mediterranean Programme was inaugurated in 1999. It is funded mainly by private and public corporations, banks, and public authorities.

The Programme focuses on the Euro-Mediterranean area, thus embracing Southern Europe, the Balkans, the Middle East and North Africa, including the countries involved in the Barcelona Process, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran and Iraq. It is an active member of EuroMeSCo and FEMISE , and partner of the UN-UNDESAInnovMed Programme.

The Mediterranean Programme operates under the scientific direction of Olivier Roy and the overall direction of Stefano Bartolini , the Director of the RSCAS.Aleksandra Djajic-Horvath serves as the Scientific Co-ordinator of the Annual Mediterranean Research Meeting. Mia Saugman is the programme's secretary.

The Scientific Board includes two external members—Massimo Livi Bacci (Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence) and Ghassan Salamé (former Minister of Culture of the Lebanese Republic)—the President and the Secretary General of the EUI, and the Director of the RSCAS.


Create a network between research institutes of the Mediterranean countries;

Document and study relevant social, economic, political and demographic phenomena in the area;

Offer an environment for informal contacts between policy-makers and experts around the Mediterranean;

Further develop our understanding of the relations between the EU and the countries of the Balkans, Middle East and Northern Africa.


Organization of an annual international Mediterranean Research Meeting;

Development and execution of externally funded research projects;

Hosting of post-doctoral Jean Monnet Fellows ;

Organization of lectures, seminars and conferences ;

Creation of and participation in networks for research and human capital formation in the Mediterranean region ;

Dissemination of the programme’s scientific output through the publications and Working Papers .

 IEMed, Barcelona


What is the IEMed?
• An actor in the dialogue between the EU and the other Mediterranean countries 
• A centre of reflection and debate on Mediterranean societies
• A think tank specialised in Euro-Mediterranean relations 
• A promoter of cooperation 
• A Mediterranean lobby close to institutions and public opinion 

What does it do?
• It encourages knowledge, through research and study 
• It carries out training and promotion activities 
• It encourages the participation of civil society in the Barcelona Process
• It contributes to the Mediterranean projection of Catalan and Spanish institutions 
• It promotes and participates in development cooperation projects 
• It works in favour of Mediterranean networks 
• It organises exhibitions and cultural activities 
• It publishes books and periodical publications 
• It acts as an observer of the Mediterranean reality 

Who governs it?
• A Governing Board with the participation of the Government of Catalonia, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, and Barcelona City Council 
• A Board of Trustees formed by companies, universities and institutions from civil society 
• An Advisory Council made up by Mediterranean personalities of recognised prestige 

IEMed: An actor in civil society
IEMed: A centre of resources and services
IEMed: Promotion, communication, participation
IEMed: A cultural promoter
IEMed: A think tank of reference

Specialized publications: afkar/Idees:Revue pour le dialogue entre le Mahreb, l’Espagne et l’Europe

 Istituto Affari Internazionali, Rome, (IAI)


MEDPRO is a consortium of 17 institutions from throughout the Mediterranean, funded under the EU's 7th Framework Programme and coordinated by the Centre for European Policy Studies At its core, MEDPRO explores the key challenges that the countries in the Southern Mediterranean region (from Morocco to Turkey) will face in the next decades. IAI leads WP2 on geopolitics and governance, which examines if and to what extent the current relative stability of the existing regimes in the southern Mediterranean is a reliable indication of their long-term sustainability. This question is tackled by analysing a set of case studies: Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria. By carrying out this work, MEDPRO provides an academic underpinning for future policy decisions to be taken at both domestic and EU levels within the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) and the Union for the Mediterranean.The first scientific workshop of the project took place in Milan on November 2-3, 2010.

During this meeting the first MEDPRO Technical Report was presented and discussed.

Recent relevant Publications:
Silvia Colombo and Nathalie Tocci (eds), The Challenges of State Sustainability in the Mediterranean, Roma, Nuova Cultura, September 2011 (IAI Research Paper ; 3)
MedPro papers

MedPro Newsletter No. 1, January 2011

The Arab Spring: social and economic challenges and opportunities(N.Tocci, M.C.Paciello, A.Dessì)

This project, carried out with the support of the Italian Consiglio Nazionale dell’Economia e del Lavoro (CNEL), focuses its attention on three case studies: Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia. The objective is twofold. The first objective is to investigate the main economic and social dynamics of each of the three countries that led to the demise of the regimes in Tunisia and Egypt and triggered a wave of protest in Algeria. The second objective is to identify opportunities for overcoming these social and economic challenges in the three countries. The recent revolts in Egypt and Tunisia have drawn attention to the role of numerous civil society actors, organized or not, in promoting and influencing the changes that are taking place in those countries. Particular attention will thus be dedicated the role of the small and medium-size enterprises, trade unions, women’s associations and youth movements in each of the three countries.

 Portuguese Institute of International Relations and Security (IPRIS), Lisbon


Recent publications:

IPRIS Maghreb Bulletin 11
Table of Contents:
Tobias Schumacher and Paulo Gorjão, "Editors' Note"
Isabelle Werenfels, "Promoting the "good Islam": the regime and Sufi-Brotherhoods in Algeria"
Jean-Pierre Cassarino, "Unauthorized migration: another agreement between Italy and Tunisia?"
Larbi Sadiki, "The clay 'tiger': Tunisia and the end of the 'bread' economic model"
Daniel Nethery, "France and the Libyan intervention"

 GIGA/Hamburg Nahost-Studien (IMES)


DFG fördert Forschungsprojekt zu Stabilität und Wandel autoritärer Regime
Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) hat die Förderung des Forschungsprojektes "Stabilität und Wandel autoritärer Regime: ein systematischer Vergleich von institutionellen und materiellen Einflussfaktoren" bewilligt. Das Projekt untersucht die gemeinsame Wirkung von politischen Institutionen und materiellen Ressourcen, wie beispielsweise Einnahmen aus dem Export von Rohstoffen, im Hinblick auf die Lebensdauer und Veränderung von Autokratien. Neben der Erschließung bisher nicht berücksichtigter Quellen zu autoritären Verteilungskapazitäten besteht ein zentraler methodischer Beitrag des Projekts in einer Verbindung von makro-statistischen mit makro-qualitativen vergleichenden Analyseverfahren. Das Projekt beginnt im Januar 2011, hat eine Laufzeit von 24 Monaten und ist sowohl im Forschungsschwerpunkt 1 als auch imForschungsschwerpunkt 2 des GIGA angesiedelt. Antragsteller und Projektleiter istDr. Thomas RichterViola Lucas arbeitet im Projekt als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin. Zudem ist PD. Dr. Martin Beck in die Projektarbeiten eingebunden.

Relevant recent publications:
Brach, Juliane: Technological Readiness in the Middle East and North Africa – Implications for Egypt, December 2010

Richter, Thomas: Autoritäre Herrschaft, materielle Ressourcen und Außenwirtschaftsreformen: Marokko, Tunesien, Ägypten und Jordanien zwischen 1970 und 2003, in: Politik und Gesellschaft des Nahen Ostens, Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften

Bank, André (with Morten Valbjorn): The New Arab Cold War: Rediscovering the Arab Dimension of Middle East Regional Politics, in: Review of International Studies, 2011.

Fürtig, Henner: Al-h?laf?t ad-d?wal?yya bisha'an al-'aq?b?t 'al? ?r?n: al-wil?y?t al-mutahida, al-ittih?d al-?r?b?, r?s?yya wa'l-s?n (Internationale Reaktionen hinsichtlich der Sanktionen gegen Iran: USA, EU, Russland, China), in: Sharqnameh, 8, 2011, 27-43.


Institute for Palestine Studies, Washington, D.C.

The Institute for Palestine Studies (IPS) is the only institute in the world exclusively devoted to research, analysis, and publication on Palestinian affairs and the Arab-Israeli conflict. IPS was established in Beirut in 1963 and also has offices in Washington D.C., an affiliate in Ramallah, and a small office in Paris.


Anna Lindh Foundation, Alexandria, Egypt



The Head of the Egyptian Network of the Anna Lindh Foundation is theBibliotheca Alexandrina and the coordination of the Network is run by Ambassador Aly Maher, Euro-Med Affairs Advisor.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina aims to be a center of excellence in the production and dissemination of knowledge and to be a place of dialogue, learning and understanding between cultures and peoples.

The Foundation provides logistical and operational support to the National Network in Egypt through the Network Strategic Development Scheme (NSDS). For more information, please refer to the document “NSDS Step 4” under Resources column on the right. This document highlights the main responsibilities and services to be provided by the Network Coordinator for the members until 31 August 2011.

To date, the Egyptian National Network brings together 95 members from important academic institutions to young NGOs, working in the fields of youth, arts, community development, environment, human rights, media, international relations.

Key Researchers

Roberto Aliboni

Michelle Pace

Tobias Schumacher

Natalie Tocci

Alfred Tovias

Select Recent Publications and Resources

 Pace, Michelle, and Peter Seeberg. 2009. The European Union Democratization Agenda in the Mediterranean. London, England: Routlege.

Soederbaum, Frederik and Patrik Stalgren (eds.). 2010. The European Union and the Global South. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Intellect Middle Eastern Studies Journal series


Council on Foreign Relations/International Institutions and global Governance Program, New York, NY


Directory of World cinema


I.B. Taurus publishers: Series on the Middle East and the Islamic World

Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany: Oriental Studies series

PERMES: Programs, Experts, Resources in Middle east Studies/online searchable directory



London School of Economics and Political Science Hellenic Observatory

Established in 1996, the Hellenic Observatory is internationally recognised as one of the premier research centres on contemporary Greece. It brings together a core group of LSE academics, and a range of Research and Visiting Fellows, to create a multidisciplinary network of scholars focusing on the social sciences.

Observatory staff and visitors conduct individual and group research projects, published in high quality outlets, and the Observatory also supports its own publications.

Further, the Hellenic Observatory has an extensive schedule of public lectures, seminars and conferences (including a biennial PhD Symposium), enabling the Observatory to be a leading forum for the exchange of views and opinions on the Greek economy, politics and society in its domestic and international contexts.

In 2011, it will expand its coverage to include contemporary Cyprus

 Network Turkey

Our intention is to bring together those who are interested in open-minded and critical debate on developments in Turkey. Network Turkey serves as an independent forum for actors in politics, economics, culture, and science.

It is our self-determined goal to trigger an open discussion on current processes in Turkey. We offer our members the opportunity to circulate information and opinions on this homepage. Furthermore, we organize events in order to introduce the broader public to topics related to Turkey. Our network enables people with common interests and fields of research to interlink and communicate. Additionally, we serve as a platform for our member’s articles and ideas.

Despite the close friendship of Turkey and the memberstates of the European Union, the public debate on both sides is often dominated by misunderstanding and prejudice. By combining the expertise of our members, we wish to discuss topics related to Turkey on a more sophisticated level, enhance cultural dialogue, and in doing so, carry on a dialogue on equal terms.



George Moustaki, "In the Mediterranean": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6atanozd-c0